An Assessment of Oral Health Risk Associated with Handling of Currency Notes

Nagesh Bhat, Surekha Bhat, Kailash Asawa, Anil Agarwal

Abstract


Background: The objective of this study was to identify the micro-organisms present on the currency notes circulating in Nashik city. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 currency notes (Five of each Rs 5, Rs 10, Rs 20, Rs 50 and Rs 100) were randomly collected from open-air markets, milk-parlors, food-vendors, beggars, banks and petrol bunks. Persons handling the notes were asked to deposit them in sterile envelopes. The notes were taken to the laboratory immediately and micro-organisms were identified using standardized microbiological techniques. Results: Micro organisms were isolated from 100% of the currency notes. Mainly three species were isolated, namely Escherichia coli, Proteus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: Infected currency was identified as a potential public health hazard, as pathogens could spread by circulating banknotes. We recommend that currency notes must be handled with caution.


Keywords


Currency Notes;Paper Currency;Contamination

References


Basavarajappa K, Rao P, Suresh K. Study of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic contaminaiton of currency notes in circulation. Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology2005;48(2):278-9.

Uneke C, Ogbu O. Potential for parasite and bacteria transmission by paper currency in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Health2007;69(9):54.

Igumbor E, Obi C, Bessong P, Potgieter N, Mkasi T. Microbiological analysis of banknotes circulating in the Venda region of Limpopo province, South Africa. S Afr j sci2007;103:9-10.

Siddique S. Dirty money. You’re carrying more than cash in your wallet. Philippine Headline News online2003.

OO K, Win P, Han A, AYE T. Contamination of currency notes with enteric bacterial pathogens. Diarrhoeal Diseases Research:92-4.

Pope T, Ender P, Woelk W, Koroscil M, Koroscil T. Bacterial contamination of paper currency. Southern Medical Journal2002;95(12):1408-10.

Singh D, Thakur K. Microbiological surveillance of currency. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology2002;20(1):53-5.

Gökta P, Oktay G. Bacteriological examination of paper money. Mikrobiyoloji bülteni1992;26(4):344-8.

Jiang X, Doyle M. Fate of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Salmonella enteritidis on currency. Journal of Food Protection 174;1999;62(7):805-7.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Index Copernicus Index Copernicus Google Scholar NISCAIR OpenJGateDOAJUlrichsWeb
line
System Developed By Stanford University Arizona State University Simon Fraser University Canadian Centre For Studies In Publishing University of British Columbia - Faculty of Education
W3C XHTML v1.0 Verified W3C verified Valid CSS v2.1 PHP5 Enabled CopyScape Protected Made On Mac Apache Enabled MySQL Powered
Published by Celesta Software Pvt Ltd